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Saturday, May 19, 2012

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Gamma Rays:

Wavelength Range:  from 0.0001 to 1Angstroms.

Production: Nuclear origin. Emitted on disintegration of nuclei of atoms.

Properties: Highly penetrating and uncharged. Exhibits fluoroscence, Phosphoroscence, ionization and chemical reaction on photographic plates.

Application: Gives information about structure of nuclei.

X-Rays:

Wavelength Range:  from 1 to 100 Angstroms.

Production: by striking high speed electrons on heavy target.


Properties: All properties of gamma rays holds good for these rays also, but less penetrating.


Application: helpful in medical diagnosis, study of crystal structure. 

Ultraviolet Rays:

Wavelength Range:  from 100 to 4000 Angstroms.

Production: by sun, arc, spark and ionized gases.

Properties:  All properties of X-rays but less penetrating. They produce photoelectric effect.

Application: used in medical applications. Detection of finger prints, forged documents. 


Visible Region:

Wavelength Range:  from 4000 to 7800 Angstroms.

Production: radiated from ionized gases and incandescent bodies.

Properties:  ehibit reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarization, photoelectric effect.

Application: used in LASER technology.

Infrared radiation:

Wavelength Range:  from 7800 to 0.001 meter.

Production: by hot bodies.

Properties:  heating effect on thermopiles and bolometer. Exhibit refelction, refraction, and photographic emulsion.

Application: used in industry, astronomy & medicine etc.

Hertzian waves:

Wavelength Range:  from 0.001 to 1 meter.

Production: by spark discharge, by electronic devices such as Klystron & magnetron.

Properties:  reflection, refraction & diffraction. Produces spark in gaps of receiving circuits.

Application: used in radar and Masers and also to reveal finer details of atomic and molecular structure.

Radio waves:

Wavelength Range:  from 1 to 10000 meter.

Production: oscillating circuits and electronic devices.

Properties:  reflection, refraction & diffraction.


Application: used in television and radio broadcast system.