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Wednesday, June 5, 2013

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM DETAILS

GAMMA RAYS


Wavelength range: 10-14 to 10-10  meter
 Frequency range: 3x1018 to 3 x 1022 Hz
Production: Nuclear origin. Emitted on disintegration of Nuclei of atoms.
Properties: Highly penetrating and uncharged. Exhibits Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, ionization and chemical reaction on photographic plates.
Uses: gives information about structure of nuclei.
X-rays


Wavelength range: 10-10 to 10-8  meter
 Frequency range: 3x1016 to 3 x 1018 Hz
Production: by striking high speed electrons on heavy target.
Properties: All properties of gamma rays but less penetrating.
Uses: helpful in medical diagnosis, study of crystal structure.
U V REGION


Wavelength range: 10-8 to 4x10-7  meter
 Frequency range: 8x1014 to 3 x 1016 Hz
Production: by sun, arc, spark and ionized gases.
Properties: All properties of gamma rays but less penetrating. They can produce photoelectric effect.
Uses: used in medical applications. Detection of finger prints, forged documents.
VISIBLE


Wavelength range: 4x10-7 to 7.8x10-7  meter
 Frequency range: 4x1014 to 8 x 1014 Hz
Production: radiated from ionized gases and incandescent bodies.
Properties: exhibit reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, polarization, photoelectric effect, sensation of sight.
Uses: used in LASER technology.
INFRARED


Wavelength range: 7.8x10-7 to 10-3  meter
 Frequency range: 3x1011 to 4 x 1014 Hz
Production: by hot bodies
Properties: heating effect on thermo piles and bolometer. Exhibit reflection, refraction, diffraction and photographic action.
Uses: used in industry, astronomy & medicine etc.
HERTZIAN WAVES/ MICROWAVES

Wavelength range: 10-3 to 1 meter.
 Frequency range: 109 to 3 x 1011 Hz
Production: by spark discharge, by electronic devices such as Klystron & Magnetron.
Properties: Reflection, Refraction & Diffraction. Produces spark in gaps and receiving circuits.
Uses: used in Radar and MASERs and also to reveal finer details of atomic and molecular structure.
RADIO WAVES

Wavelength range: 1 TO 104 meter.
Frequency range: 10 KHz to 30 GHz
Production: oscillating circuits and electronic devices.
Properties: exhibits Reflection, Refraction & Diffraction.
Uses: used in television and radio broadcast system.