Properties of Stationary Waves

When two simple harmonic waves of same amplitude, frequency and time period travel in opposite directions in a straight line, the resultant wave obtained is called a stationary or a standing wave.

Properties of stationary waves:

1) In these waves, nodes and anti nodes are formed alternately.
   Nodes are positions where particles are at their mean positions having maximum strain.
   Anti nodes are positions where the particles vibrate with maximum amplitude having minimum strain.

2) The medium is split into segments and all particles of same segment vibrate in phase. The particles in one segment have a phase difference of '𝜫 ' with the particles in neighboring segment.

3) Condensations and rarefractions do not travel forward as in progressive wave but they appear and disappear alternately at same place.

4) As condensations and rarefractions do not travel forward there is no transfer of energy.

5) The distance between two adjacent nodes is 'ƛ/2' and also the distance between two adjacent antinodes is 'ƛ/4'. Between the two nodes there is anti node and vice versa.

6) The general appearance of wave can be represented by a sine curve but it reduces to straight line twice in each time period.

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