Stefan's -Boltzmann Law

This law states that the total amount of radiant energy emitted by a black body per second per unit area is directly proportional to the fourth power of its absolute temperature i.e. E∝T⁴ or E=𝜎T⁴ where 𝜎 is called Stefan's constant. It has a value of 5.67 x 10⁻⁸ Wm⁻²K⁻⁴. This law is strictly true only when the medium surrounding the black body is vacuum.

The same law was established later by Boltzmann theoretically from thermodynamical considerations. Hence, this law is known as Stefan-Boltzmann law.

Consider the case of black body 'A' at absolute temperature 'T1' which is surrounded by another black body at absolute temperature 'T2'.


Heat lost by black body 'A' is 𝜎T1⁴ 
Amount of heat absorbed by black body 'A' from black body 'B' is  𝜎T2⁴.
Therefore, Net amount of heat emitted by body 'A' per second per unit area is 𝜎(T1⁴ - T2⁴).
This is the form of "Stefans Boltzman Law". 

Note: This law is true only when medium surrounding the body is vacuum.

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