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It is unit of energy used in photo chemistry. One Einstein is energy per mole of photons carried by a beam of monochromatic light.

One Einstein= 3.99 x 10-10 ν, Joules per mole; ν is frequency

Einstein’s Mass-Energy Relation

The total energy of a moving body is equal to relativistic mass times the square of speed of light. E=mc2; ‘m’ is mass of body in motion; m= mo/sqrt(1-v2/c2); m0 is rest mass of body; C is velocity of light.  

Elastic Collision

It is the type of collision in which both the momentum & kinetic energy are conserved and colliding bodies do not undergo any deformation.

Elastic Deformation

The deformation in which stress and strain are proportional is called elastic. In such a deformation, when applied load is released, the substance returns to original shape.

Elastic Fatigue

The state of temporary loss of elastic nature of a body due to repeated stress over a long time interval is called as elastic fatigue.

Elastic Limit

When the strain is increased slightly beyond proportionally limit in a wire, the stress is not proportional to strain. However the wire exhibits elastic property. When deforming force is removed, wire regains natural wavelength. This is called elastic limit. 


It is the property of a body by virtue of which it tends to regain its original size and shape after removal of deforming forces.


A polymeric material that may experience reversible elastic deformation.


The word is first coined by Oliver Heaviside in 1885. It is derived from words electricity (electr) and magnet (et). It is dielectric material that has a quasi permanent electric charge or dipole polarization.        

Electric Current

It is the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time         

Electric Field

There exists a region around any charge, filled with imaginary lines of force. The electric field is defined as force acting on any test charge placed in that region.


It is defined as torque exerted on test dipole placed in that region. 

Electric Potential

Potential energy which a unit charge would have, if brought to a specified point in space from some reference point.

Electric Susceptibility

It is proportional constant between microscopic property “polarization” and macroscopic property “electric field”.

Electrical Discharge

It results from creation of conducting path between two points of different electrical potential in the medium, in which the points are immersed. Usually the medium is gas. It occurs when potential difference is very high.

Electricfield Intensity

Physical quantity used to measure strength of electric field in the space around a charged object. It is defined as force per unit charge placed at a point in the field.  


It is also known as electroplating. It is the process of depositing material on to conducting surface from a solution containing ionic species, by passing electric current.


The phenomenon in which electric energy can be used to generate photoemission in a solid is known as electro luminescence. 

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