**Effective mass of electron**

The mass of an electron inside crystal appears, in general, different from free electron mass and is referred to as effective mass. The effective mass can be greater or lesser than electron mass.

**Electron Volt**

The energy gained by electron when put under potential difference of 1 volt. It is equal to

1.6 x 10-19 J.

It is the type of collision in which both the momentum & kinetic energy are conserved and colliding bodies do not undergo any deformation.

It is the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time

(or)

The rate of flow of electric charge.

It is the work done on unit positive charge by source in taking it through low potential end to high potential end.

Thermal property which remains constant during an adiabatic process

(or)

Measure of randomness or disorderliness of molecules.

When a metal body is moved in a magnetic field in such a way that the magnetic flux through it changes or is placed in a changing magnetic field, induced currents circulate throughout the body. They are called eddy currents.

If a rigid body is subjected to a number of forces acting on it and has neither translatory motion nor rotatory motion, then it is said to be in equilibrium. Following conditions are satisfied in such a case:

**Elastic collision**It is the type of collision in which both the momentum & kinetic energy are conserved and colliding bodies do not undergo any deformation.

**Electric current**It is the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time

(or)

The rate of flow of electric charge.

**Electromotive force**It is the work done on unit positive charge by source in taking it through low potential end to high potential end.

**Entropy**Thermal property which remains constant during an adiabatic process

(or)

Measure of randomness or disorderliness of molecules.

**Eddy current**When a metal body is moved in a magnetic field in such a way that the magnetic flux through it changes or is placed in a changing magnetic field, induced currents circulate throughout the body. They are called eddy currents.

**Equilibrium of a rigid body**If a rigid body is subjected to a number of forces acting on it and has neither translatory motion nor rotatory motion, then it is said to be in equilibrium. Following conditions are satisfied in such a case:

a) The algebraic sum of forces acting on it is zero ( translational equilibrium)

b) The algebraic sum of moments of all the forces about any point is zero. (rotational equilibrium)

The ratio of angular dispersion between two colors to deviation of mean ray produced by the prism is called dispersion power of material of prism for those colors.

It is the property of a body by virtue of which it tends to regain its original size and shape after removal of deforming forces.

The ratio of useful work obtained by the engine in one cycle to the heat absorbed from the source is called efficiency of engine.

The total amount of radiant energy emitted per second per unit area by a surface is called total emissivity of that surface.

It is the minimum velocity with which a body should be projected from the surface of the planet so as to reach infinity.

The state of temporary loss of elastic nature of a body due to repeated stress over a long time interval is called as elastic fatigue.

For any incompressible & non-viscous fluid flowing steadily, the product of its velocity and area of crossection at all points during its flow through a tube remain constant. Velocity of fluid is inversely proportional to area of crossection.

An ensemble is defined as a collection of large number of microscopically identical but essentially independent systems.

Arrangement to produce a fine beam of electrons accelerated to desired velocity.

A fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics is that a macroscopic system in equilibrium is equally likely to be in any of its accessible microscopic states satisfying macroscopic conditions of system.

(or)

The probability of finding the phase point for given system in any region of phase space is identical with that for any other region of equal extension or volume.

The time average of some property of a system in equilibrium is same as instantaneous ensemble average.

The type of interaction between two charged particles by exchange of photons is called as electromagnetic interaction. The strength of electromagnetic interaction is given by dimensionless fine structure constant α = 1/137 and is due to photon exchanges.

It is type of deformation of substance in which stress and strain are proportional.

Relationship between torque applied to rigid body and angular acceleration of body is known as equation of motion of rigid body.

It is defined as by ICRU (1980), as “the quotient of dQ by dm, where the value of dQ is absolute value of total charge of the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons liberated by photons in air of mass ‘dm’ are completely stopped in air.

The deformation in which stress and strain are proportional is called elastic. In such a deformation, when applied load is released, the substance returns to original shape.

When the force is exerted by the system on its surroundings leading to displacement is called external work.

b) The algebraic sum of moments of all the forces about any point is zero. (rotational equilibrium)

The ratio of angular dispersion between two colors to deviation of mean ray produced by the prism is called dispersion power of material of prism for those colors.

**Elasticity**It is the property of a body by virtue of which it tends to regain its original size and shape after removal of deforming forces.

**Efficiency of engine**The ratio of useful work obtained by the engine in one cycle to the heat absorbed from the source is called efficiency of engine.

**Emissivity**The total amount of radiant energy emitted per second per unit area by a surface is called total emissivity of that surface.

**Escape velocity**It is the minimum velocity with which a body should be projected from the surface of the planet so as to reach infinity.

**Elastic fatigue**The state of temporary loss of elastic nature of a body due to repeated stress over a long time interval is called as elastic fatigue.

**Equation of continuity**For any incompressible & non-viscous fluid flowing steadily, the product of its velocity and area of crossection at all points during its flow through a tube remain constant. Velocity of fluid is inversely proportional to area of crossection.

**Ensemble**An ensemble is defined as a collection of large number of microscopically identical but essentially independent systems.

**Electron gun**Arrangement to produce a fine beam of electrons accelerated to desired velocity.

**Equal Apriori probability**A fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics is that a macroscopic system in equilibrium is equally likely to be in any of its accessible microscopic states satisfying macroscopic conditions of system.

(or)

The probability of finding the phase point for given system in any region of phase space is identical with that for any other region of equal extension or volume.

**Ergodic hypothesis**The time average of some property of a system in equilibrium is same as instantaneous ensemble average.

**Electromagnetic interactions**The type of interaction between two charged particles by exchange of photons is called as electromagnetic interaction. The strength of electromagnetic interaction is given by dimensionless fine structure constant α = 1/137 and is due to photon exchanges.

**Elastic Deformation**It is type of deformation of substance in which stress and strain are proportional.

**Equation of motion of rigid body**Relationship between torque applied to rigid body and angular acceleration of body is known as equation of motion of rigid body.

**Exposure**It is defined as by ICRU (1980), as “the quotient of dQ by dm, where the value of dQ is absolute value of total charge of the ions of one sign produced in air when all the electrons liberated by photons in air of mass ‘dm’ are completely stopped in air.

**Elastic deformation**The deformation in which stress and strain are proportional is called elastic. In such a deformation, when applied load is released, the substance returns to original shape.

**External work**When the force is exerted by the system on its surroundings leading to displacement is called external work.

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