PHYSICS DICTIONARY


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Temperature
Degree of hotness of a body


Tephigram
It is the name given for temperature-Entropy diagram. It is useful for applications of meteorology, work value of fuel etc.


Thermodynamics
Experimental or empirical science which deals with macroscopic properties of matter.


Thermodynamics Ist law
When a definite amount of work is done a certain amount of heat is produced & vice versa.


Thermodynamics IInd Law
Every chemical or physical or natural process in nature takes place in such a manner that total energy increases or remains constant.


Thermodynamics IIIrd law
The heat capacities of all solids tends to zero as the absolute zero of temperature is approached and that the internal energies & entropies of all substances become equal there, approaching their common value asymptotically.


Thermal Neutron
Neutrons whose average kinetic energy is reduced to that of atoms of medium in which they are travelling at a particular temperature are called thermal neutrons.

(or)

When a Neutron moving in a medium attains thermal energy of atoms of medium at ambient temperature, then it is said to be thermal neutron.


Thermometer
Device used to measure temperature.


Thermal equilibrium
Whenever there is no exchange of heat between bodies, the bodies are said to be in thermal equilibrium.
(or)
When temperature in all parts of the system is same as that of surroundings, the system is said to be in thermal equilibrium.


Thermalization of Neutrons
Slowing down of neutrons having high energy to energies below 1eV is called thermalization of neutrons.


Thermionic Emission
Phenomenon in which metal emits electrons from its surface when heated.


Transformer
It is an AC static device that transfers electric power from one circuit to another. It raises or lowers the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding decrease or increase in current.


Total internal reflection
When angle of incidence of a ray travelling from denser to rarer medium is greater than the critical angle, no refraction occurs. The incident ray is reflected back in same medium. The phenomenon is called as total internal reflection.


Thin film
Films having thickness between 100 Ao to 10000 Ao.


Type-I superconductor
Super conductor which exhibits complete Meissner effect for magnetic fields up to a limit called critical magnetic field.


Type-II superconductor
Superconductor which exhibits Meissner effect till a particular magnetic field range, beyond which admits magnetic flux but retains zero resistance till a particular field value (critical field II) beyond which settles to normal state.


Transverse wave motion
In this wave motion, the particles of medium vibrate at right angles to direction of propagation of wave.


Twin boundaries
A twin boundary is a special type of grain boundary across which there is a specific mirror lattice symmetry; that is atoms on one side of boundary are located in mirror image positions of atoms on the other side. The region of material between these boundaries is approximately termed as a twin.


Toughness
It is measure of ability of a material to absorb energy upto fracture point.


Thermoplastic
Materials which soften when heated (and eventually liquefy) and harden when cooled processe


Translatory motion
Motion of object is said to be translator under following conditions:

i) Every particle of the body experiences the same linear displacement, velocity and acceleration as any other particle of body.

ii) All particles travel along parallel paths which may be straight or curved.

iii) It can be produced or changed by an unbalanced force.


Tensor analysis:
The study of the fact that “the fundamental laws of physics should possess the same form in all coordinate systems” known as invariant formulation of physical laws is embodied in “Tensor analysis”.
Tensor analysis is generalization of vector analysis.

Translational motion
If a rigid body moves in such a manner that all its particles move along parallel paths then its motion is called translational motion.


Thermal Radiation (Thermodynamics)
It is the mechanism of heat transfer through electromagnetic waves. This type of heat transfer can take place even through vacuum.