**Josephson
Junction**

It is a device
formed from sandwiching very thin insulator layer between two superconductors.
There is continuous flow of electric current without influence of any external
voltage in such devices, the effect which is named as Josephson Effect which
was named after British scientist Brian Josephson who proposed it in 1962.

**Joule
Kelvin Effect**

In physics, the
Joule-Thomson effect or Joule-Kelvin effect describes the increase or decrease
in the temperature of a real gas when it is allowed to expand freely at
constant enthalpy (which means that no heat is transferred to or from the gas,
and no external work is extracted). For each gas, there is a temperature of
inversion above which the change is positive and below which it is negative.

**Joule**

It is SI unit of
energy.

**Joule’s
Law of Heating**

When a current of I amperes passes through
a circuit of resistance R ohms for a time of t seconds then the heat produced
is given by the relation H=I^{2}Rt joules; The relation is known as the
joule’s law of heating.

**Joules
Expansion**

When a definite
mass of a gas is expanded such that the external work done by the gas or on the
gas is zero, neither the gas absorbs nor rejects any heat, then the expansion
of gas is known as Joules expansion.

**Joules
Law (Gases)**

Internal energy
of an ideal gas only depends on its temperature ‘T’ and doesn’t depend on its
volume ‘V’ and pressure ‘P’.

**Joule-Thomson
Effect**

When a gas passes
through an insulated porous plug from a constant high pressure to a constant
low pressure, there is change in its temperature. This effect is called
Joule-Thomson’s effect and the processes are called adiabatic throttling
process.

**Junction
Diode **

It is semiconductor
device consisting of a single PN junction. It has a highly non linear current –
voltage characteristic and is often used as a rectifying element.

**Jupiter**

Jupiter is the
fifth planet from the Sun and by far the largest. Jupiter is
more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined.
The mass of
Jupiter is 318 times that of Earth. It has orbit of 778,330,000 Km (5.20 AU)
from Sun; Diameter
of 142,984 km (equatorial); Mass of 1.900 x 10^{27} Kg.

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